Human Physiology and Biochemistry

1. Introduction to Human Physiology and Biochemistry

  • Definitions and interrelationship between physiology and biochemistry.
  • Historical perspectives and milestones.
  • Importance in understanding human health and disease.

2. Cell Structure and Function

    • Detailed structure of cell membranes, cytoplasm, and organelles.
    • Functions of cellular components.
    • Cellular metabolism: anabolic and catabolic pathways.

      3. Biomolecules

        • Structure and function of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides.
        • Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids.
        • Proteins: amino acids, peptide bonds, levels of protein structure.
        • Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA structure and function.

          4. Enzymes and Enzyme Kinetics

            • Types of enzymes and their roles in biochemical reactions.
            • Mechanisms of enzyme action.
            • Factors affecting enzyme activity: temperature, pH, substrate concentration.
            • Enzyme inhibition: competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.

              5. Bioenergetics and Metabolism

                • Basic principles of bioenergetics: free energy, exergonic and endergonic reactions.
                • Role of ATP in cellular activities.
                • Detailed pathways: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation.

                  6. Physiology of the Nervous System

                    • Neuron structure: dendrites, axon, synapse.
                    • Mechanism of nerve impulse transmission.
                    • Structure and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
                    • Neurotransmitters and their roles.

                      7. Cardiovascular System

                        • Heart anatomy: chambers, valves, blood flow.
                        • Cardiac cycle and heart sounds.
                        • Blood vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries.
                        • Mechanisms regulating blood pressure and blood flow.

                          8. Respiratory System

                          • Anatomy of the respiratory tract: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs.
                          • Mechanics of breathing: inspiration and expiration.
                          • Gas exchange in alveoli.
                          • Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood.

                          9. Digestive System and Nutrition

                          • natomy of the digestive system: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestines.
                          • Processes of digestion: mechanical and chemical.
                          • Absorption of macronutrients and micronutrients.
                          • Role of vitamins and minerals in metabolism.

                          10. Renal System

                          • Kidney anatomy and nephron structure.
                          • Processes of urine formation: filtration, reabsorption, secretion.
                          • Regulation of water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance.

                          11. Endocrine System

                          • Overview of major endocrine glands and hormones.
                          • Mechanisms of hormone action: receptor binding, signal transduction.
                          • Regulation of metabolic processes: growth, metabolism, reproduction.

                          12. Musculoskeletal System

                          • Structure of bones and muscles.
                          • Mechanisms of muscle contraction: sliding filament theory.
                          • Bone remodeling and repair.
                          • Joint structure and function.

                          13. Immune System

                          • Components: white blood cells, antibodies, antigens.
                          • Mechanisms of innate immunity: barriers, phagocytosis, inflammation.
                          • Adaptive immunity: humoral and cell-mediated responses.
                          • Immunological memory and vaccines.

                          14. Reproductive System

                          • Male reproductive system: testes, sperm production.
                          • Female reproductive system: ovaries, menstrual cycle, pregnancy.
                          • Hormonal regulation of reproductive functions.
                          • Reproductive health and diseases.

                          15. Integration and Regulation of Body Systems

                          • Homeostatic mechanisms: feedback loops.
                          • Interaction between nervous and endocrine systems.
                          • Physiological responses to stress.
                          • Adaptation to changing environments.
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